UPDATE: We have learned that in addition to participating in Senior Nationals next week in Edmonton, that Skyeler Kerr is also participating in eight events at Age Group Nationals in Calgary this week. Kerr swam in two events this morning, placing 10th in the 100m Butterfly, and 18th in the 50m Breaststroke.CALGARY, A.B. – Three Inconnu swimmers are in Calgary competing in the Canadian Age Group Nationals.Eric Louie is set to compete in the 50m Breaststroke Finals this evening after placing 3rd in this morning’s qualifier. Louie, who is competing in 6 events over the next five days, also missed qualifying for the 100m Butterfly by less than one second, placing 11th in the prelim. Brittany Welsh and Alex Hedges both swam in one event each this morning. Hedges placed 24th in the 100m Butterfly, while Welsh placed 42nd in the 200m Backstroke.- Advertisement -According to a post on the club’s Facebook group, the 50 metre breaststroke final will be taking place at approximately 5:30 p.m., and can be streamed live on Swimming Canada’s website: http://sportscanada.tv/swimmingcanada/watch-live-pool-1
DAWSON CREEK, B.C. – Argo Road Maintenence Road Contractor is reminding drivers to slow down as the snow has arrived.Tweeted on Thursday, September 26th, 2019, Argo posted, slow down and adjust your driving speeds according to the weather conditions.Argo’s twitter feed has posted shoulder gravelling has started along the John Hart Hwy (BCHwy 97S) near Fabric Road today and tomorrow. Traffic will be single lane and to expect minor delays.- Advertisement -For more information on #shiftintowinter; CLICK HERE
Pogba hasn’t completed 90 minutes in a month as he has been hauled off by Jose Mourinho in defeats at Tottenham and Newcastle, and dropped by the Portuguese for victory over Huddersfield at Old Trafford in between.Reports in the French press emerged last week that Pogba is unhappy with the role given to him by Mourinho, in particular the defensive demands imposed by the Portuguese.Mourinho pointedly said Pogba would have occupied his favoured role on the left of a midfield three for Saturday’s fifth-round FA Cup win at Huddersfield if he had not been ruled out hours before the game due to illness.The arrival of Alexis Sanchez on the left side of the United attack in January has exacerbated those differences as Pogba and the Chilean are yet to complete 90 minutes together.Sevilla v Manchester United © AFP / Vincent LEFAIMourinho described rumours of a breakdown in communication between he and Pogba as “big lies”, but has not hid his criticism of the 24-year-old’s form.“In this moment he is not playing well… and the team needs him at a good level.”No more so than in the next few weeks as in between their two legs against Sevilla, United also host Chelsea and Liverpool in the Premier League with all three sides locked in a battle to finish in the top four.“When he is not playing at a good level the team is not as good as the team can be,” added Mourinho.“I think it happens with every team when the best players, the most crucial players, for some reason are not performing.”– Can Mourinho harness attacking talent? –For the hundreds of millions spent by United in the transfer market in recent seasons, Pogba remains the most marquee of them all having beat off competition from around Europe to make him then the most expensive player in the world in 2016.Manchester United’s manager Jose Mourinho (L) talks with midfielder Paul Pogba on the sidelines in January 2018 © IKIMAGES/AFP/File / Ian KINGTONThe question remains whether Mourinho, who extended his contract in January to 2020, and Pogba can reconcile their differences for the common good.Despite his stellar coaching career, it is not the first time Mourinho has failed to muster the maximum potential from a prestigious talent.Two of the frontrunners for Player of the Year honours in England, Kevin De Bruyne and Mohamed Salah, were disregarded by Mourinho and sold on the cheap during his time at Chelsea.Not long after he returned to United, Pogba told French magazine So Foot he’d be “the new midfielder”.A player he defined as “can defend, he can win the ball, he can make the play, he can pass, he can score”.A concept that doesn’t sound too dissimilar to Mourinho’s definition of a box-to-box midfielder in recent weeks.“(It) means you have to defend well, have the physical conditions to go to the other box, where you have to be good at scoring, creating, heading and then, when your team loses the ball, you have to go to the other box,” said Mourinho.“Now people say a box-to-box has to play free of defensive duties.”Time will tell if United’s star player and coach can harmonise their ideas on paper onto reality on the pitch.0Shares0000(Visited 1 times, 1 visits today) 0Shares0000Paul Pogba, pictured on February 3, 2018, hasn’t completed 90 minutes in a month © AFP/File / Paul ELLISLONDON, United Kingdom, Feb 20 – Manchester United’s Champions League trip to Sevilla on Wednesday night is the type of occasion for which the English giants swallowed their pride to pay £89 million ($125 million) for Paul Pogba, four years after he left Old Trafford for Juventus as a free agent.Yet, it remains to be seen whether the French midfielder even starts at the Sanchez Pizjuan for the first leg of the last-16 tie as much due to his form as his fitness.
The boys from Bundoran who were crowned champs today!Magh Ene College, Bundoran have won the boys 1st Year Final of the Folens Donegal League today.John Birney, Magh Ene captain presented with Folens Donegal League Cup for 1st Year Boys by Ita Gallagher, Donegal League co-ordinator First Year BoysThe boys from Bundoran beat Pobalscoil Gaoth Dobhair 1st year Boys today.John Birney, Magh Ene captain presented with Folens Donegal League Cup for 1st Year Boys by Ita Gallagher, Donegal League co-ordinator for First Year Boys BUNDORAN BOYS ARE BASKETBALL CHAMPS! was last modified: April 17th, 2015 by StephenShare this:Click to share on Facebook (Opens in new window)Click to share on Twitter (Opens in new window)Click to share on LinkedIn (Opens in new window)Click to share on Reddit (Opens in new window)Click to share on Pocket (Opens in new window)Click to share on Telegram (Opens in new window)Click to share on WhatsApp (Opens in new window)Click to share on Skype (Opens in new window)Click to print (Opens in new window) Tags:basketballbundorandonegalMagh Ene College
LM: Kenny Sjogren 41 pass from Trever Blood (Jerome Balbour Jr. pass from Tony Minero) B: FG Arturo Guizar 37 LM: Brett Gauthier 25 pass from Blood (kick failed) B: Marquis Quinn 19 pass from Reggie Williams (Chris Tautolo pass from Williams) LM: Blood 36 run (Chris Dixon kick) B: FG Guizar 35 Records (overall, league): Bellflower 3-2, 1-1; La Mirada 3-2, 2-0. S. El Monte 48, Wilson 42 S. El Monte 0 14 19 15 48 Wilson 21 7 14 0 42 W: Daniel Bernal 26 pass from Israel Sausto (Antonio Hernandez kick) W: Andrew Romero 10 pass from Sausto (Hernandez kick) W: Bernal 19 run (Hernandez kick) S: Daniel Romero 80 Blocked field goal return (Julio Pacheco kick) W: Bernal 90 kickoff return (Hernandez kick) S: Lee Aguirre 25 run (Pacheco kick) S: Aguirre 26 run (Pacheco kick) S: Cesar Oros 24 pass from Aguirre (kick failed) W: Allen Eubank 3 run (Hernandez kick) W: Kieth Gonzales 60 fumble return (Hernandez kick) S: Romero 55 pass from Aguirre (run failed) S: Romero 20 pass from Aguirre (Pacheco kick) S: Jose Talavara 3 run (Joe Morales pass from Aguirre) Records (overall, league): S. El Monte (4-1); Wilson (3-2). Charter Oak 21, Claremont 7 Charter Oak 0 0 13 8 21 Claremont 0 0 0 7 7 CO: Matt Austin 21 pass from Drew Carreon (Natalie Bailey kick) CO: Michael Johnson 30 pass from Carreon (kick failed) CO: Austin 9 pass from Carreon (Rechard Keith from Carreon) C: Micahel Galland 8 pass from Greg Sprowles (Ryan Harper kick) Records: Charter Oak 3-2; Claremont 2-3. Damien 22, St. John Bosco 20 Damien 0 3 12 7 22 St. John Bosco 7 0 7 6 20 B: Trent Brown 47 pass from David Mahr (Andrew Aguila kick) D: DeJon Miller 49 FG B: Brown 15 pass from Mahr (Aguila kick) D: Dominic Brown 3 run (run failed) D: Brown 55 run (run failed) D: Ryan Farrar 1 run (Mike Gallardo kick) B: Craig Williams 14 run (run failed) Records: Damien 4-1; St. John Bosco 2-3. Glendora 42, Arcadia 25 Arcadia 0 12 13 0 25 Glendora 14 21 0 7 42 G: Jordan Edmond 79 pass from Brad Stockham (Damien Mair kick) G: Ben Rodriguez 47 run (Mair kick) G: Stockham 1 run (Mair kick) A: Kristopher Robison 22 run (kick failed) G: Brandon Bryan 22 pass from Stockham (Mair kick) A: Jordan Larson 25 pass from Travis Gowan (run failed) G: Bryan 12 pass from Stockham (Mair kick) A: Robison 27 pass Gowan (run failed) A: Ryan Rutherford 4 pass from Gowan (Aaron Gaivan kick) G: Bryan 10 pass from Stockham (Mair kick) Records: Arcadia 3-2; Glendora 4-1. Whittier Christian 45, Western Christian 6 Western Chr 0 0 0 6 6 Whittier Chr 20 13 12 0 45 AD Quality Auto 360p 720p 1080p Top articles1/5READ MOREThe top 10 theme park moments of 2019 SV: Miguel Parra 25 FG LP: Martin Garcia 27 FG SV: George Alverado 20 pass from Parra (Parra kick) SV: Elias Flores 30 pass from Parra (kick failed) SV: David Lazario 3 run (Parra kick) Records (overall, league): Sierra Vista 3-3, 1-0; La Puente 0-5, 0-1 NONLEAGUE Alta Loma 36, Walnut 0 Alta Loma 22 7 7 0 36 Walnut 0 0 0 0 0 A L: Jack Rodgers 3 run (Taylor Hart kick) A L: Safety, fumbled punt snap in end zone A L: Skyler Monroe 5 run (Hart kick) A L: Rodgers 1 run (kick failed) A L: Jonathan Price 9 run (Hart kick) A L: Rodgers 14 run (Hart kick) Records: Alta Loma 5-0; Walnut 2-3. SUBURBAN LEAGUE La Mirada 21, Bellflower 14 Bellflower 0 3 8 3 14 La Mirada 0 14 7 0 21 FOOTBALL MONTVIEW LEAGUE Gladstone 28, Bassett 0 Bassett 0 0 0 0 x Gladstone 7 14 7 0 28 G: Philip Nemcek 35 pass from Omar Lopez (Marco Reyes kick) G: Nemcek 5 run (Reyes kick) G: Nemcek 2 run (Reyes kick) G: Nemcek 99 run (Reyes kick) Records: Bassett 0-6; Gladstone 5-1. Sierra Vista 23, La Puente 3 Sierra Vista 3 13 0 7 23 La Puente 3 0 0 0 3 WhC: Esteban Camarillo 31 run (Zack Metzner kick) WhC: Derek Gersch 44 run (Metzner kick) WhC: Taylor Redmond 49 interception return (kick failed) WhC: Gersch 7 run (pass failed) WhC: Joe Villa 2 run (Metzner kick) WhC: Camarillo 16 run (kick failed) WhC: Camarillo 27 run (kick failed) WeC: Jordan Doolittle 1 run (kick failed) Records: Western Christian 1-4; Whittier Christian 4-0. Covina 37, Diamond Ranch 0 Diamond Ranch 0 0 0 0 0 Covina 14 6 10 7 37 CHS: Art Combest 64 run (Oscar Tello kick) CHS: Jamal James 20 pass from Michael McDonough (Tello kick) CHS: Andre Williams 20 pass from McDonough (kick failed) CHS: Combest 33 pass from McDonough (Tello kick) CHS: Tello 21 FG CHS: McDonough 9 run (Tello kick) Records: Diamond Ranch 0-5; Covina 4-1. Bell Gardens 40, El Monte 23 El Monte 6 3 0 14 23 Bell Gardens 0 19 21 0 40 EM: Pedro Velasquez 1 run (kick failed) BG: Raymond Morales 35 run (kick failed) BG: Anthony Borunda 43 pass from Morales (Diego Delgadillo kick) BG: Moises Escobar 41 fumble recovery (run failed) EM: Miguel Rodriguez 30 FG BG: Daniel Martinez 24 run (Delgadillo kick) BG: Martinez 42 run (Delgadillo kick) BG: Martinez 19 run (Delgadillo kick) EM: Juan Castro 52 pass from Velasquez (pass failed) EM: Velasquez 8 run (Anthony Chavez run) Records: El Monte 2-3, Bell Gardens 3-2. Chino Hills 42, Ganesha 0 Ganesha 0 0 0 0 0 Chino Hills 21 14 7 0 42 C: Michael Harris 47 rush (Munch kick) C: Cory Harkey 6 pass from Lance Roenicke (Munch kick) C: Geoff McNeil 6 pass from Roenicke (Munch kick) C: Steven Thomas 22 rush (Munch kick) C: Brian Jones 2 pass from Thomas (Munch kick) C: Trent Slavin 5 rush (Munch kick) Records: Ganesha 0-5; Chino Hills 5-0. West Covina 31, Ayala 21 Ayala 7 0 7 7 21 West Covina 14 10 0 7 31 A: Terrence Smith 16 fumble return (Jacob Harfman kick) WC: Mike Martinez 4 pass from George Munoz (Robert Mata) WC: Marin Hernandez 4 run (Mata kick) WC: Mata 23 field goal WC: Edmund Alvarado 4 run (Mata kick) A: Herman Kucukkoseoglu 1 run (Harfman kick) A: Aaron Ridgway 2 run (Harfman kick) WC: Alvarado 17 run (Mata kick) Records (overall, league): Ayala 2-3; West Covina 5-0. BOYS WATER POLO THURSDAY’S RESULT NONLEAGUE Pioneer 12, HH Wilson 11, OT Pioneer 2 2 3 3 1 1 12 HH Wilson 3 3 3 1 0 1 11 Pioneer scoring: Michael Torres 6, Luis Hernandez 5, Eddie Rodriguez 1. HH Wilson scoring: Preston Rojas 4, Alvin Chang 4, Howard Liu 1, Jonathan Chang 1, Howard Chen 1. Shots: N/A. Goalie saves: Ethan Taylar (P) 15; Steven Wang (HHW) 7. Records: Pioneer 6-4; HH Wilson 4-10. GIRLS FIELD HOCKEY GOLDEN WEST LEAGUE Glendora 2, Bonita 1 @SOC.BOX1:Bonita 0 1–1 @SOC.BOX2:Glendora 1 1–2 Bonita scoring: Allison Marsh (Corrina Bustos). Glendora scoring: Kendall Hentch 2 (both unassisted). Shots: Bonita 7; Glendora 17. Goalie saves: Kristine Leonard (B) 14; Tiffany Brandt (G) 5. Records: Bonita 10-2-2, 2-1-0; Glendora 8-1-1, 3-0-0. GIRLS VOLLEYBALL CHRISTIAN LEAGUE At Western Christian HS Western Christian def. Ontario Christian 21-25, 25-21, 25-22, 25-23. Records (overall, league): Ontario Christian 2-6, 1-1 Western Christian 8-4, 1-1. Notes: Lauren Bjorklund (W) 19 kills, 7 blocks; Laura Jorgensen (W) 8 blocks. MISSION VALLEY LEAGUE At Arroyo HS Gabrielino def. Arroyo 25-12, 25-22, 28-26. Records (overall, league): Gabrielino 9-4, 2-0; Arroyo 6-5, 1-1. Notes: Diana Moreno (A) 10 kills, Stephaine Hernandez (A) 10 kills, Kelsey Duling (G) 10 kills, Crissy Lapaix (G) 10 kills. At Rosemead HS Mountain View def. Rosemead 25-18, 25-11, 25-15. Records (overall, league): Mountain View 3-5, 2-0; Rosemead 0-8, 0-2. Notes: Liz Marquez (MV) 5 aces; Diana Chan (MV) 5 aces. THURSDAY’S LATE RESULTS MIRAMONTE LEAGUE At Wilson HS Wilson def. Los Altos 21-25, 25-20, 25-23, 25-16. Records (overall, league): Los Altos 4-2, 1-1; Wilson 4-0, 2-0. Notes: Ashley Lee (W) 30 kills, 8 blocks; Ashley Morgado (W) 11 kills. MOUNT BALDY LEAGUE At Diamond Ranch Diamond Ranch def. Chaffey, 25-23, 25-20, 25-19. Records (overall, league): Chaffey 2-1 (in league); Diamond Ranch 5-6, 3-0. Notes: Amber Wilson (DR) 13 kills, Rebecca Awaa (C) 14 kills. SAN ANTONIO LEAGUE At Rowland HS Walnut def. Rowland 25-12, 25-23, 25-17. Records (overall, league): Walnut 12-3, 1-0; Rowland 0-2. Notes: Karri Currier (W) 15 kills; Angeline Quiocho (W) 11 kills. At West Covina HS South Hills def. West Covina 25-14, 25-9, 25-14. Records (overall, league): South Hills 14-3, 2-0; West Covina 1-1. Notes: Natalia Gonzalez (SH) 11 kills. SIERRA LEAGUE At Diamond Dar HS St. Lucy’s def. Diamond Bar 28-26, 21-25, 25-16, 25-23. Records (overall, league): St Lucy’s 2-0 in league; Diamond Bar 15-5, 1-1. Notes: Torrie Brown (DB) 12 kills, 8 blocks. At Ayala HS Ayala def. Chino Hills 25-9, 25-13, 25-16. Records (overall, league): Chino Hills 0-2; Ayala 6-7, 1-1. Notes: Brittany Williams (A) 14 kills. VALLE VISTA LEAGUE At San Dimas HS San Dimas def. Baldwin Park 25-17, 25-16, 25-12. Records (overall, league): Baldwin Park 4-6, 0-2; San Dimas 7-6, 1-1. Notes: Jasmine Davis (SD) 11 kills; Michelle Strickland (SD) 5 aces. At Ganesha Northview def. Ganesha, 25-17, 24-26, 26-28, 25-16, 15-6. Records (overall, league): Northview 4-3, 2-0; Ganesha 4-4, 1-1. Notes: Justina Catania (N) 17 kills, Mallorie Lee (N) 16 kills, 8 blocks; Rhea Nuguid (N) 10 kills, Nikki Burke (N) 6 aces. 160Want local news?Sign up for the Localist and stay informed Something went wrong. Please try again.subscribeCongratulations! You’re all set!
The man killed when he slipped into a river in Gaoth Dobhair yesterday has been named.He was 65 year old Ian Smith from Ederny in Co Fermanagh.Mr Smith drowned when he fell into the River Clady while working at Station Bridge for a Northern Ireland-based firm who were carrying out contract works in the area. A spokesman for the Health and Safety Authority said he had been carrying out work to upgrade the bridge at the time of his fall.A full investigation has been launched into the accident.A massive search operation involving divers, Gardai, ambulance and fire personnel as well as the Rescue 118 helicopter was launched when Mr Smith fell into the water around 11.30am.His body was later recovered just after 2.30pm by divers not far from where he was last seen. Man who died tragically in bridge fall is named was last modified: January 17th, 2018 by StephenShare this:Click to share on Facebook (Opens in new window)Click to share on Twitter (Opens in new window)Click to share on LinkedIn (Opens in new window)Click to share on Reddit (Opens in new window)Click to share on Pocket (Opens in new window)Click to share on Telegram (Opens in new window)Click to share on WhatsApp (Opens in new window)Click to share on Skype (Opens in new window)Click to print (Opens in new window) Tags:bridgedrownfallGaoth DobhairGardaiworks
JASON Quigley says the world’s his oyster after his latest KO win.By Chris McNulty in BostonQuigley returned after a full year out of action with a deadly destruction of the durable Daniel Rosario in Quincy. Rosario felt the full force of a bloodthirsty body blow from Quigley’s left hand and ref’ Mike Ryan stepped in to call a halt two minutes and 51 seconds into the sixth round.“He looked weak to the body and that was the game plan,” Quigley, back in the ring after surgery on an injured right hand, said.“After four rounds, I thought I was starting to wear him down and had weathered the storm. He came on strong again. He kept coming and coming.“The right hands were working to the body. I landed a few and heard him wincing. The left hook to the body came out of nowhere. It’s not a shot I normally have. “They call me ‘El Animal’. That name is changing, but I showed tonight that I am an animal.”Rosario, just about, answered a count earlier in the sixth, but there was no coming back when Quigley, now trained by Dominic Ingle, nailed him again.The Golden Boy Promotions ace said: “There was no reverse in Rosario.“Coming into the fight, I knew he was one tough cookie. He was never beaten convincingly. That just goes to show what I’m made of.“I did what I had to do. I’ll look at things I can better myself on and the world’s our oyster. “This was another big learning experience and this is time to push on and get better. Bigger things are around the corner.”Quigley spent 373 days waiting for the moment after having to bide his time since his title win over Glen Tapia last March. When it arrived, he didn’t disappoint.“This was the perfect fight for me to get back and see where I’m at. I took him out when I got to work. There were doubts letting the right hand go. I landed early and hurt him early. I could see him wincing.“They call me ‘El Animal’. That name is changing, but I showed tonight that I am an animal.” On the same card, Mayo light-welter Ray Moylette improved to 9-0, 3KOs with a points win over Matt Doherty.Moylette had a busy 2017 with eight wins and an excellent final four rounds gave the Islandeady man his latest successMoylette had a magnificent fifth round and looked on course for a stoppage at a time. Doherty saw it out, but Moylette was a comfortable winner.Jason Quigley ready to take on the world after Easter KO was last modified: April 2nd, 2018 by Chris McNultyShare this:Click to share on Facebook (Opens in new window)Click to share on Twitter (Opens in new window)Click to share on LinkedIn (Opens in new window)Click to share on Reddit (Opens in new window)Click to share on Pocket (Opens in new window)Click to share on Telegram (Opens in new window)Click to share on WhatsApp (Opens in new window)Click to share on Skype (Opens in new window)Click to print (Opens in new window)Tags:BallybofeyDaniel RosarioGolden Boy PromotionsJason Quigley
Most of us know the Second Law of Thermodynamics (2TD) as the law of decay and disorder, and would tend to assume it would constitute a major obstacle to theories of the origin of life by chemical evolution (see online book); certainly creationists Duane Gish and Henry Morris frequently employed the 2TD skilfully in their debates with evolutionists. Surprisingly, Eric Schneider and Dorian Sagan (Carl Sagan’s son by his first wife, the Gaia theorist Lynn Margulis) praised the 2TD as a life-giving principle in their new book, Into the Cool: Energy Flow, Thermodynamics and Life. “Cool is not enough” remarked J. Doyne Farmer (Santa Fe Institute) in his review of the book in Nature.1 Unimpressed with the concept, he smirked, “There’s more to life than the second law of thermodynamics.” How could Schneider and Dorian Sagan turn a liability like 2TD into an asset? Farmer gives their thesis a two-paragraph synopsis:The authors’ central thesis is that the broad principle needed to understand self-organization is already implicit in the second law of thermodynamics, and so has been right under our noses for a century and a half. Although the second law is a statement about increasing disorder, they argue that recent generalizations in non-equilibrium thermodynamics make it clear that it also plays a central role in creating order. The catchphrase they use to summarize this idea is “nature abhors a gradient”. Being out of equilibrium automatically implies a gradient in the flow of energy from free energy to heat. For example, an organism takes in food, which provides the free energy needed to do work to perform its activities, maintain its form and reproduce. The conversion of free energy to entropy goes hand in hand with the maintenance of organization in living systems. The twist is to claim that the need to reduce energy gradients drives a tendency towards increasing complexity in both living and non-living systems. In their words: “Even before natural selection, the second law ‘selects’, from the kinetic, thermodynamic, and chemical options available, those systems best able to reduce gradients under given constraints.” For example, they argue that the reason a climax forest replaces an earlier transition forest is that it is more efficient at fixing energy from the Sun, which also reduces the temperature gradient. They claim that the competition to reduce gradients introduces a force for selection, in which less effective mechanisms to reduce gradients are replaced by more effective ones. They argue that this is the fundamental reason why both living and non-living systems tend to display higher levels of organization over time. (Emphasis added in all quotes.)Interesting, Farmer mumbles, but uh-uh. “This is an intriguing idea but I am not convinced that it makes sense.” He proceeds to criticize their vagueness of the “selection” process or why things should tend to increase in complexity. Yes, the 2TD is important for understanding the operation of complex systems, but “the authors’ claim that non-equilibrium thermodynamics explains just about everything falls flat,” he contends. For example, “consider a computer.” A computer has a power supply, but “the need for power tells us nothing about what makes a laptop different from a washing machine.” At this point, things get interesting. Farmer starts arguing intelligent design; is this J. Doyne Farmer speaking, or Stephen Meyer?To understand how a computer works, and what it can and cannot do, requires the theory of computation, which is a logical theory that is disconnected from thermodynamics. The power supply can be designed by the same person who designs them for washing machines. The key point is that, although the second law is necessary for the emergence of complex order, it is far from sufficient. Life is inherently an out-of-equilibrium phenomenon, but then so is an explosion. Something other than nonequilibrium thermodynamics is needed to explain why these are fundamentally different. Life relies on the ability of matter to store information and to implement functional relationships, which allow organisms to maintain their form and execute purposeful behaviours that enhance their survival. Such complex order depends on the rules by which matter interacts. It may well be that many of the details are not important, and that there are general principles that might allow us to determine when the result will be organization and when it will be chaos. But this cannot be understood in terms of thermodynamics alone.With this, Farmer left the origin of life as an unsolved problem. “Understanding the logical and physical principles that provide sufficient conditions for life is a fascinating and difficult problem that should keep scientists busy for at least a millennium,” he wrote. Thermodynamics is just one of many actors in the play, and not even the principal one; “The others remain unknown.”1J. Doyne Farmer, “Cool is not enough,” Nature 436, 627-628 (4 August 2005) | doi: 10.1038/436627a.They’re not unknown; they’re right in your hotel room drawer. This review was interesting because Farmer invoked arguments similar to those used by creationists and intelligent design theorists. Since it is highly doubtful that Farmer’s review was religiously motivated, this supports the contention that arguments against chemical evolution arise from the facts, not the motivation. Contrary to the habits of their opponents, Morris and Gish always stuck to the scientific principles and observational facts, not theological arguments, in their famous debates on college campuses with leading evolutionists. Like Farmer, they stressed that energy is necessary, but not sufficient, for life or for any other directed process that uses energy to accomplish work. They argued that two other principles always need to be applied: (1) an energy conversion mechanism, and (2) a program to direct the energy toward the desired end. In an automobile, for instance, the chemical energy of the gasoline is converted into kinetic energy of the drive shaft by channeling the “explosion” of the fuel in the piston according to a programmed sequence of events: inlet, spark, explosion against the moveable piston, outlet for the waste gases and heat, etc. In a plant leaf, the energy of sunlight is directed into very complex conversion mechanisms of photosynthesis to direct it into metabolic processes. Gish always emphasized that the application of raw energy is even more harmful than none at all: pouring gas on the car and lighting a match does not help it drive uphill, and holding a dead stick up to the sunlight will not make it sprout and grow fruit. Only when the far-from-equilibrium energy is channeled by intelligent design will the tendency toward disorder be overcome, and that only locally and temporarily. The downhill effects of the Second Law of Thermodynamics are inexorable; all real processes must obey the law of entropy. In this book review, Farmer admitted as much, and even made the case stronger by pointing to computers. A laptop computer channels electrical energy into complex programmed pathways that we all know are the result of intelligent design. Software engineers may be far from equilibrium, but there’s more to the story than that! That Schneider and Dorian Sagan would try to turn the Second Law into a driving force for evolution is almost comical. The Big Science establishment treats Gaia theory, even its most naturalistic incarnations, with nearly the same disdain as it does creationism. Nature would not let this book get by with any more than faint praise for some aspects, but that they would let the reviewer employ implicit ID/creationist reasoning to debunk its primary thesis is instructive.(Visited 19 times, 1 visits today)FacebookTwitterPinterestSave分享0
Don’t think of dinosaur species living in small ecological zones. Their habitats covered vast areas, according to a new study: “Researchers at McGill University are unlocking the mysteries of the little-known habits of dinosaurs in discovering that the entire western interior of North America was likely once populated by a single community of dinosaurs,” reported Science Daily. Dinosaurs in North America inhabited ecological niches comparable to those of mammals today. They were mobile and adaptable: “They were able to colonize and dominate the landscape over very large distances, and were not nearly as constrained as we might have once thought,” said Matthew Vavrek, a PhD student at McGill. The team compared “alpha diversity” (diversity within an area) to beta diversity (diversity between areas) and found that beta diversity was low – comparable to wide-ranging mammals. This speaks of homogeneous communities covering the entire Western interior. The team recognized that they are “just beginning to scratch the surface of dinosaur ecology.” This initial study raises many new questions about gene flow, migration, and affects of the dinosaurs on other megafauna and plant communities.To the extent the conclusions in this study are reliable, they raise interesting questions about climate as well. Today’s western interior is highly stratified into biomes characterized by temperature, rainfall, flora and fauna. There are deserts, riparian zones, grasslands, chaparral, arboreal forests, and timberline meadows. Does the presence of dinosaur species across nearly continent-sized regions indicate that the climate or geography was radically different in the past? If so, what would that imply about earth history as well as political debates over human impact on the environment? These are questions that can be posed, not answers we are proposing. One needs to be cautious with concepts, techniques and inferences in studies like this. Some terms that are taken for granted in science become rather slippery when one has to pin them down. Take ecological niche, for instance, or predator. The differences between elements of these set can arguably outweigh the things they have in common. A wolf spider and a grizzly bear can both be considered predators, for instance, and a human and a bedbug can both inhabit the same ecological niche. Terms like these are useful for human theories and conversations. It is difficult to defend the notion that they refer to realities that are actually “out there” in the world, independent of human reasoning. To what does alpha diversity and beta diversity refer? Sounds Greek. The Greeks were humans, after all, not dinosaurs; although they were mammals. The authors themselves admit that they are barely scratching the surface of dinosaur ecology. Let’s let them scratch some more. There can be surprises in lower layers. Maybe they are not even scratching the right surface.(Visited 8 times, 1 visits today)FacebookTwitterPinterestSave分享0
by Jerry Bergman, PhDThe headline of a new discovery about the origin of life reads, “A New Clue to How Life Originated.”And so another new theory about how life could have evolved from simple molecules has been added to the existing pile of theories. I expect that it soon will be discarded as have most other origin-of-life theories. The new theory began when Professor Caitlin Cornell was looking in her microscope and saw bright spots against a black background resembling “miniature suns, blazing against the backdrop of space.” Cornell thenshowed the spots to her supervisor, Sarah Keller, a chemist at the University of Washington, “we got really excited,” she recalls. “It was a bit of an ‘Aha!’ moment.” Those spots, she realized, might help address a long-standing puzzle about the origin of life itself.Cells that make up all living organisms, from single-celled animals to humans, exist in an almost endless variety, but all must contain the following:Molecules that encode information to produce protein, and that can be copied, such as DNA and RNA.Proteins which construct the organism’s body and the cell’s organelles, such as mitochondria. These proteins are also used to construct skin, muscles, and other tissues plus the 200 organs that make up our body.An encapsulating membrane that surrounds all cells and cell organelles, which is made from fatty acids.Background of Origins-of-Life TheoriesDarwinists postulate that, if we go back far enough in time, before animals and plants and even bacteria existed, the precursor of all life must have existed which they call a “protocell.” They postulate that this structure had a trinity of parts: RNA and proteins, surrounded by a membrane. Young quotes physicist Freeman Dyson who opined, “Life began with little bags of garbage.” Already we can see a problem. To be life, this protocell has to do what life does, namely respirate, replicate, duplicate RNA, and produce a bag, the membrane, that protects the machines that make protein to produce the parts required for life. Young adds all of the parts are critical, even the bag: “Without something to corral the other molecules, they would all just float away, diffusing into the world and achieving nothing…. Life, at its core, is about creating compartments.”Much more important is having the right machines in the right place in the right compartment at the right time. And even more important is the DNA and the complex machinery required to translate the genetic code into functional proteins. Since the complexity required to meet this goal is overwhelming, evolutionists must postulate something simpler existed as the first cell. Some propose it was based on RNA, called the RNA-world theory. Even here problems exist. Jack Szostak, 2009 Nobel laureate for the discovery of how chromosomes are protected by telomeres and the enzyme telomerase, noted that accordingto the RNA World Hypothesis, RNA was a key molecule that was utilized by the earliest life on Earth to store genetic information and to catalyze chemical reactions. This raises the question, however, of how RNA formed under prebiotic conditions on the early Earth. In fact, the issue of the complete synthesis of RNA nucleotides has been a major stumbling block for the RNA World Hypothesis. The sugar found in the backbone of both DNA and RNA, ribose, has been particularly problematic, as the most prebiotically plausible chemical reaction schemes have typically yielded only a small amount of ribose mixed with a diverse assortment of other sugar molecules.Another problem is that RNA is enormously complex. Lab experiments have not been much help, a fact which has caused “some scientists to hypothesize that RNA was preceded by other RNA-like molecules that were more stable and readily synthesized under prebiotic conditions.” One proposed solution to the complexity problem suggests that “some components of RNA may have formed in space and arrived on Earth rather than being formed de novo on the Earth.” But this solution, rather than solving the complexity problem, just moves it somewhere else, so the same problem still exists. Based on an analyses of meteorites, such as the Murchison meteorite and other evidence, some scientists have raised powerful objections to the postulate that some components of RNA formed somewhere out in space.From Building Blocks to BuildingsAnother problem concerns assembly. Even if we can somehow obtain pools of RNA nucleotides on Earth, how did (or could) long strands of RNA form on the early Earth? Chemical evolutionists imagine RNA “ribozymes,” with both coding and enzymatic abilities, happening on the same molecule by chance. The few known ribozymes have very limited capabilities, like cutting themselves in half.Ribosome: Messenger RNA in, protein out. (Illustra Media)Then there’s the folding problem. Obtaining a functional ribozyme that could direct the assembly of amino acids into a strand that could fold into a functional protein is astronomically improbable. In real life, a molecular machine called a ribosome is required to read the genetic code and translate it into protein. But the ribosome requires both RNA and protein to work. It’s a classic chicken-and-egg problem: how could RNA form a protein to create a machine that needs a protein to work?ClaymationTo hope for a ribozyme that might function as a cheap ribosome jig would likely require an RNA strand composed of at least 30 to 40 nucleotides. This issue has been researched by James Ferris’ group at Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute. They attempt to solve the problem of the origin of RNA strands composed of at least 30 to 40 nucleotides, postulatingthat the formation of long strands of RNA may have been catalyzed by clays such as montmorillonite. The … clay surface attracts the nucleotides and the increased local concentration of nucleotides causes bond formation between nucleotides, forming a polymer of RNA.”Others have pointed out the problems with the clay theory. University of Chicago Professor Robert Shapiro wrote the “sudden appearance of a large self-copying molecule such as RNA was exceedingly improbable. … [The probability] is so vanishingly small that its happening even once anywhere in the visible universe would count as a piece of exceptional good luck.”Bring in the MagiciansIn short, all other proposals have met a dead end. Thus the new theory called “completely magical” has been proposed by Caitlin Cornell and her research team.Professor Cornell ignores the problem of the origin of RNA and protein for now and, instead, focuses on cell membranes constructed from fatty acids. The fatty acids in cell membranes are lollipop-shaped molecules possessing fatty round heads and long, thin, two-stranded tails. The heads are hydrophilic; the tails, hydrophobic. Consequently, when placed in water, the fatty acids can self-assemble into hollow spheres with the hydrophilic tails on the surface, the hydrophobic tails end up pointing inward. These spheres can enclose RNA and proteins, making crude protocell-like compartments. The problem, Young explains, assuming the common belief that life first arose in salty oceans, is that ocean water contains many kinds of ions in addition to sodium and chloride, such as magnesium and iron—both very common in saltwater today.These ions cause the spheres to collapse, which is problematic since RNA—another key component of early protocells—requires these ions. How, then, could life possibly have arisen, when the compartments it needs are destroyed by the conditions in which it first emerged, and by the very ingredients it needs to thrive?Caitlin Cornell and Sarah Keller’s answer is that the spheres are able to withstand both salt and magnesium ions, as long as they’re in the presence of amino acids—which concurrently are the building blocks of proteins. The tiny suns Cornell observed in her microscope were mixtures of amino acids and fatty acids that held their spherical shape in the presence of salts. She wrote about her simple discovery:I find that utterly magical. It means that two of the essential components of life, a protocell’s membrane and its proteins, provided the conditions for each other to exist. By sticking to the fatty acids, the amino acids gave them stability. In turn, the fatty acids concentrated the amino acids, perhaps encouraging them to coalesce into proteins.The research team then made a Herculean leap in fantasy from this simple mundane observation. Writing in poetic prose, they imagined that from the very beginning of evolutionthese partners were locked in a two-step dance that continued for 3.5 billion years, and helped create all the richness of biology from a starting place of mere chemistry. “I agree completely,” Keller tells me. “It’s completely magical. You need those two parts together.”Laws vs MagicIt is not magical. It is simply a consequence of the laws of chemistry which had to be designed the way they are for life to exist. That is the problem that must be explained. A theist would postulate that the laws of chemistry exist by design with the specific goal to allow life to exist, not the other way around as implied by Cornell and her colleagues. Cornell implied that the laws of chemistry existed first which just happened to be conducive for the creation of complex life on Earth. She describes her experiment as follows:On their own, the fatty acids predictably self-assembled into hollow spheres. “They looked like jellyfish: clear insides with opaque edges, floating around,” she says. If she added salt or magnesium ions, these jellyfish disintegrated. But if she did that after adding amino acids, they held their shape. What’s more, they transformed into shapes that Cornell likens to glowing onions. Their once-hollow centers were filled with another layer of fatty acids—spheres within spheres. Not coincidentally, that’s what our actual cells are like, with membranes that comprise two fatty layers instead of one…. Amino acids allow membranes to exist in the presence of magnesium, which RNA needs to function.From the film Origin (Illustra Media)In spite of the headline hype, she has not stumbled onto the solution of how life evolved, but rather only the chemistry that explains how life was designed to live. She has recreated the chemical conditions required for working cells, or more accurately, she has accidentally copied the existing design found in cells. She was only explaining how life works, not how life evolved. Her challenge is to address a problem posed to her by her colleagues, namely “no one had good ideas about how exactly the protocell trinity—RNA, proteins, and membranes” could assemble in life, in other words, how it functioned in life. She has shed light on a small part of the question of how lipid membranes could be stabilized in salt water – not how life evolved.The presence of amino acids protects the fatty-acid spheres, allowing what we see in the biological world to exist. She found a compartment that can hold the building blocks required for making proteins and RNA, but still has yet to determine how the individual building blocks build buildings: how they bond together to form the larger molecules, which she admits is “a very hard question.” The model falls far short of explaining how nonliving chemicals spontaneously formed life in the natural world without any guidance from an intelligent being.Past Efforts FailedThe theory implies natural bonding patterns can produce life. It’s similar to a theory that was proposed by Dean H. Kenyon and chemist Gary Steinman in their book Biological Predestination. This book was a mainstay of college biology and evolution classes back in the 1970’s. In short, the authors believed that life was biochemically predestined by the properties of attraction and repulsion that exist between chemicals, especially between amino acids in proteins. They described the following causal chain: the “properties of the chemical elements dictate the types of monomers that can be formed in prebiotic syntheses, which then dictate the properties of the occurring polymers, which finally dictate the properties of the first eobionts [dawn cells] and all succeeding cells.” Several reviews were very laudable about the Biological Predestination book, such as this review by Leslie Orgel in Science.Biochemical Predestination , despite its title, is a thoroughly professional book on the origins of life. It presents the best detailed account of the subject that I have read. The authors, perhaps because they never knew the bad old days [of origins of life research], are not too concerned with the legitimacy of their subject but, writing as laboratory scientists, describe the relevant experiments and attempt to interpret them.The anti-creation website called ‘Panda’s Thumb’ even wrote “Dr. Dean Kenyon, Ph.D., Biophysics… [is] one of the leading evolutionary biologists in the world.” One of the leading origin-of-life researchers, Sidney W. Fox, was able to point out problems with the main theme of Biochemical Predestination as far back as 1970. Kenyon eventually rejected his own theory of biochemical predestination. In the film Unlocking the Mystery of Life, he says he could not answer a counter-argument proposed by one of his students: how could amino acids assemble themselves into proteins without genetic instructions?Chemical bonds must form for a cell to exist. The research by Cornell merely adds another example to our understanding of the binding properties of a few molecules involved in making stable membranes. It’s a trivial factor in explaining the origin of life [OOL], which must also include the far more difficult questions about the origin of genetic instructions and metabolism.What They Actually AchievedThe Cornell team rationalized their trivial success, thinking that doing something (i.e., finding a law-like chemical property) is better than doing nothing. Before their contribution, says Ed Yong of the article in The Atlantic, “people were just waving their hands and attributing this crucial convergence to some random event.” Furious hand-waving goes with the OOL territory. Yong writes,The study of life’s origins is always contentious. Scientists often disagree furiously about things that are happening right now, let alone events that occurred more than 3.5 billion [Darwin] years ago. Some researchers, for example, think that life began in shallow volcanic pools, while others argue that it must have arisen in underwater vents.The study by the Cornell team is no less contentious. In essence, they were helping the cause of design—not of evolution. By determining a requirement for the chemistry for life to work, the scientists were acting as if they were “thinking God’s thoughts after Him,” as Kepler said of his investigations into how the heavens operated. It did not help explain how life evolved from some primordial goo, but only how, because of certain laws of chemistry, some requirements for life have been met.References Ed Young. 2019. “A New Clue to How Life Originated. A long-standing mystery about early cells has a solution—and it’s a rather magical one.” The Atlantic. August 19. Online at https://www.theatlantic.com/science/archive/2019/08/interlocking-puzzle-allowed-life-emerge/595945/ Young, 2019. Ref 1. Young, 2019. Ref 1. Young, 2019. Ref 1. Young, 2019. Ref 1. Jack Szostak. “RNA on the Early Earth”. http://exploringorigins.org/nucleicacids.html Szostak. Ref 6. Szostak. Ref 6. Szostak. Ref 6. Robert Shapiro, 2007. “A Simpler Origin for Life,” Scientific American, pp. 46-53. June. Young, 2019. Ref 1. Young, 2019. Ref 1. Dean H. Kenyon, and Gary Steinman. 1969. Biochemical Predestination. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill. Stephan Berry. 1997. “ ‘Biochemical Predestination’ as Heuristic Principle for Understanding the Origin of Life,” Journal of Chemical Education, 74(8):950. Leslie Orgel. 1969. “Evidence and Speculation on How Life Began.” Science. December 26, pp.1613-1614. Nick Matzke. 2010. Dean Kenyon: a young-earth creation scientist who was later relabeled an intelligent design proponent. https://pandasthumb.org/archives/2010/07/dean-kenyon-a-y.html. July 20. Sidney W. Fox. 1970. “Biochemical Predestinationby Dean H. Kenyon, Gary Steinman.” The Quarterly Review of Biology, 45(2);180. June. Young, 2019. Ref 1. Casey Luskin. 2012. “Top Five Problems with Current Origin-of-Life Theories.” Evolution News. https://evolutionnews.org/2012/12/top_five_probl/Dr. Jerry Bergman has taught biology, genetics, chemistry, biochemistry, anthropology, geology, and microbiology at several colleges and universities including for over 40 years at Bowling Green State University, Medical College of Ohio where he was a research associate in experimental pathology, and The University of Toledo. He is a graduate of the Medical College of Ohio, Wayne State University in Detroit, the University of Toledo, and Bowling Green State University. He has over 1,300 publications in 12 languages and 40 books and monographs. His books and textbooks that include chapters that he authored, are in over 1,500 college libraries in 27 countries. So far over 80,000 copies of the 40 books and monographs that he has authored or co-authored are in print. For more articles by Dr Bergman, see his Author Profile.Another brilliant cartoon by Brett Miller for CEH.(Visited 811 times, 1 visits today)FacebookTwitterPinterestSave分享0