Most of us know the Second Law of Thermodynamics (2TD) as the law of decay and disorder, and would tend to assume it would constitute a major obstacle to theories of the origin of life by chemical evolution (see online book); certainly creationists Duane Gish and Henry Morris frequently employed the 2TD skilfully in their debates with evolutionists. Surprisingly, Eric Schneider and Dorian Sagan (Carl Sagan’s son by his first wife, the Gaia theorist Lynn Margulis) praised the 2TD as a life-giving principle in their new book, Into the Cool: Energy Flow, Thermodynamics and Life. “Cool is not enough” remarked J. Doyne Farmer (Santa Fe Institute) in his review of the book in Nature.1 Unimpressed with the concept, he smirked, “There’s more to life than the second law of thermodynamics.” How could Schneider and Dorian Sagan turn a liability like 2TD into an asset? Farmer gives their thesis a two-paragraph synopsis:The authors’ central thesis is that the broad principle needed to understand self-organization is already implicit in the second law of thermodynamics, and so has been right under our noses for a century and a half. Although the second law is a statement about increasing disorder, they argue that recent generalizations in non-equilibrium thermodynamics make it clear that it also plays a central role in creating order. The catchphrase they use to summarize this idea is “nature abhors a gradient”. Being out of equilibrium automatically implies a gradient in the flow of energy from free energy to heat. For example, an organism takes in food, which provides the free energy needed to do work to perform its activities, maintain its form and reproduce. The conversion of free energy to entropy goes hand in hand with the maintenance of organization in living systems. The twist is to claim that the need to reduce energy gradients drives a tendency towards increasing complexity in both living and non-living systems. In their words: “Even before natural selection, the second law ‘selects’, from the kinetic, thermodynamic, and chemical options available, those systems best able to reduce gradients under given constraints.” For example, they argue that the reason a climax forest replaces an earlier transition forest is that it is more efficient at fixing energy from the Sun, which also reduces the temperature gradient. They claim that the competition to reduce gradients introduces a force for selection, in which less effective mechanisms to reduce gradients are replaced by more effective ones. They argue that this is the fundamental reason why both living and non-living systems tend to display higher levels of organization over time. (Emphasis added in all quotes.)Interesting, Farmer mumbles, but uh-uh. “This is an intriguing idea but I am not convinced that it makes sense.” He proceeds to criticize their vagueness of the “selection” process or why things should tend to increase in complexity. Yes, the 2TD is important for understanding the operation of complex systems, but “the authors’ claim that non-equilibrium thermodynamics explains just about everything falls flat,” he contends. For example, “consider a computer.” A computer has a power supply, but “the need for power tells us nothing about what makes a laptop different from a washing machine.” At this point, things get interesting. Farmer starts arguing intelligent design; is this J. Doyne Farmer speaking, or Stephen Meyer?To understand how a computer works, and what it can and cannot do, requires the theory of computation, which is a logical theory that is disconnected from thermodynamics. The power supply can be designed by the same person who designs them for washing machines. The key point is that, although the second law is necessary for the emergence of complex order, it is far from sufficient. Life is inherently an out-of-equilibrium phenomenon, but then so is an explosion. Something other than nonequilibrium thermodynamics is needed to explain why these are fundamentally different. Life relies on the ability of matter to store information and to implement functional relationships, which allow organisms to maintain their form and execute purposeful behaviours that enhance their survival. Such complex order depends on the rules by which matter interacts. It may well be that many of the details are not important, and that there are general principles that might allow us to determine when the result will be organization and when it will be chaos. But this cannot be understood in terms of thermodynamics alone.With this, Farmer left the origin of life as an unsolved problem. “Understanding the logical and physical principles that provide sufficient conditions for life is a fascinating and difficult problem that should keep scientists busy for at least a millennium,” he wrote. Thermodynamics is just one of many actors in the play, and not even the principal one; “The others remain unknown.”1J. Doyne Farmer, “Cool is not enough,” Nature 436, 627-628 (4 August 2005) | doi: 10.1038/436627a.They’re not unknown; they’re right in your hotel room drawer. This review was interesting because Farmer invoked arguments similar to those used by creationists and intelligent design theorists. Since it is highly doubtful that Farmer’s review was religiously motivated, this supports the contention that arguments against chemical evolution arise from the facts, not the motivation. Contrary to the habits of their opponents, Morris and Gish always stuck to the scientific principles and observational facts, not theological arguments, in their famous debates on college campuses with leading evolutionists. Like Farmer, they stressed that energy is necessary, but not sufficient, for life or for any other directed process that uses energy to accomplish work. They argued that two other principles always need to be applied: (1) an energy conversion mechanism, and (2) a program to direct the energy toward the desired end. In an automobile, for instance, the chemical energy of the gasoline is converted into kinetic energy of the drive shaft by channeling the “explosion” of the fuel in the piston according to a programmed sequence of events: inlet, spark, explosion against the moveable piston, outlet for the waste gases and heat, etc. In a plant leaf, the energy of sunlight is directed into very complex conversion mechanisms of photosynthesis to direct it into metabolic processes. Gish always emphasized that the application of raw energy is even more harmful than none at all: pouring gas on the car and lighting a match does not help it drive uphill, and holding a dead stick up to the sunlight will not make it sprout and grow fruit. Only when the far-from-equilibrium energy is channeled by intelligent design will the tendency toward disorder be overcome, and that only locally and temporarily. The downhill effects of the Second Law of Thermodynamics are inexorable; all real processes must obey the law of entropy. In this book review, Farmer admitted as much, and even made the case stronger by pointing to computers. A laptop computer channels electrical energy into complex programmed pathways that we all know are the result of intelligent design. Software engineers may be far from equilibrium, but there’s more to the story than that! That Schneider and Dorian Sagan would try to turn the Second Law into a driving force for evolution is almost comical. The Big Science establishment treats Gaia theory, even its most naturalistic incarnations, with nearly the same disdain as it does creationism. Nature would not let this book get by with any more than faint praise for some aspects, but that they would let the reviewer employ implicit ID/creationist reasoning to debunk its primary thesis is instructive.(Visited 19 times, 1 visits today)FacebookTwitterPinterestSave分享0
Top Reasons to Go With Managed WordPress Hosting Two weeks ago we held the ReadWriteWeb Mobile Summit in Mountain View, California. The Real-Time Web Summit in NYC will follow the same unconference format, which we’ve gotten a lot of great feedback on. To see the power of the unconference format, check out this video that shows how session pitching happened at the Mobile Summit:Watch live video from ReadWriteWeb Mobile Summit 2010 on Justin.tv“[The Mobile Summit] was the best best best event I’ve been to in years, and I mean it. To be frank, I almost left ten minutes after I arrived, thinking that I was completely out of place. Turns out I was exactly in the right place all along. I left feeling completely energized about media, innovation, women in tech, new social models, and have so many new ideas about what I want to do next and what I want to get involved in. What I really didn’t expect was to walk away with a pretty clear picture of what the future of mobile media (and social media) looks like. Now I’m staring at invites to keynote at a couple of tech events this year and hoping they’re a fraction of the win that was RWWMS.” – Violet Blue, sex educator and authorAn unconference is a free-flowing, organically generated series of group discussions agreed on and led by attendees.“We’ve all been to unconferences before, but ReadWriteWeb made it feel brand new. They pulled together a really good crowd, and their facilitation set the scene for surprising and thought-provoking conversations.”Ross Turk, Director, Global Developer Community, Alcatel-LucentThis is our third unconference event and we think it fits who we are perfectly. First, much like the current era of the Web, unconferences encourage two-way communication. This generates new, actionable ideas and means that you typically learn much more than you would at a traditional conference. Secondly, due to the high quality of our reader base, ReadWriteWeb’s unconference events attract an intelligent, influential group of people. So the networking is superb!To get a feel for how thoughtful discussion happens at these events, check out the comments by Ted Morgan, Chris Saad and Ben Metcalfe in this video by Evelyn Rusli from TechCrunch:What is the Real-Time Web?The most widely known application of the Real-Time Web is Twitter. However, it’s much more than Twitter or Facebook. The Real-Time Web is a set of technologies that impacts almost every service, activity and application on the Web. Come to the summit to understand how it impacts you, your business and your next development.We were one of the first news outlets to analyze the Real-Time Web and we’ve since written extensively about it. We also published a premium report on the subject last year, which featured interviews with 50 companies, developers and executives building or leveraging real-time Web technology.If you’re a company in the Real-Time Web market, you may be interested in helping to sponsor this event. Please contact our COO Sean Ammirati for more information.The ReadWriteWeb team is excited about our first New York event on June 11th, so we look forward to seeing you there! Tags:#conferences#Real-Time Web#RWW Real-Time Web Summit, NYC 2010#web Why Tech Companies Need Simpler Terms of Servic… ReadWrite Sponsors A Web Developer’s New Best Friend is the AI Wai… Related Posts 8 Best WordPress Hosting Solutions on the Market Today is the final day to take advantage of early bird pricing for ReadWriteWeb’s first East Coast event: the Real-Time Web Summit on June 11 at the Metropolitan Pavilion in New York City. Don’t miss out on a ticket price of just $295.Attendees already include thought-leaders like John Borthwick of betaworks, Alex Iskold of Adaptive Blue and Anil Dash of Expert Labs. ReadWriteWeb also has a special rate for students. If you are a student and would like to participate, please email us at email@example.com. Why We Use the Unconference Format“The RWW Real-Time Web Summit [in 2009] was excellent – friggin’ great in fact. I hauled a handful members of my team across country for it and my only regret was that I didn’t bring more of them. I’m looking forward to the next one.”John Borthwick, CEO BetaWorks – one of the leading investors in the Real-Time Web.
When NeuAer finished its stage presentation at the LAUNCH conference today, Joyent CEO David Young had just one thing to say: “It puts the smart in smartphone.” We, and many in the crowd it seemed, were equally impressed.Imagine if your phone could tell you when your friend walked by so you could call them, or when your ex arrived so you could duck beneath the table. Imagine if you could automatically drop a pin on Google Maps every time you turned off your car. Just think about a phone that could perform all sorts of functions just based on who or what is near you and where you are – that’s NeuAer.According to company’s website, the NeuAer platform “enables any smartphone to automate aspects of your digital life from whom or what is detected in it’s physical space.” It can do all the those hypotheticals we posited above and more. It can change your call settings according to where you are, automatically check you in on LBS services and any number of other features, but without the use of battery-draining GPS. How? Simple. NeuAer uses Bluetooth, WiFi and Near-Field Communication (NFC) technologies to detect situations and locations and react accordingly. “When known ‘tagged’ objects get close to or move away from a user,” the company explains on its website, “you can trigger an alert, drop a pin on a virtual map, or check-in on social websites.”Currently, an Android app called ToothTag is available as a demonstration of the technology. The description of the app in the Android Marketplace gives a bit more insight on NeuAer’s vision: “This application is for people who are tired of looking down at their phone to see where their friends are and want to look up, live life and interact in the real world.You ‘tag’ wireless Bluetooth and WiFi devices, then setup rules to automate actions on your smartphone. These can be cool things within the phone like playing a favorite song as you walk by a coffee shop where your friends are hanging out. Or, you can automatically drop a pin on a map where you park your Bluetooth enabled car. Never again will you hunt for your lost car in a city street.Rules can be setup for both connect or disconnect events, often without the requirement for pairing your phone to another device. That means if you want to see when someone gets too far away from you, like your child, you can setup your phone to vibrate upon a disconnect. Conversely, if you want to see when your ex-significant other gets too close for comfort, you can sound an alarm on just ‘seeing’ their phone!”The company is the brainchild of Dave Mathews and Rob Meadows, who demonstrated potential applications on stage today. They showed how, using their technology, you could tag any number of different WiFi points to trigger different events, which means if you tag your friend’s phone, you can be alerted anytime they wander within WiFi range. But beyond that, the true potential here is that the company will be releasing an API for developers to work with. They have created the technology and now others can run with it. As venture investor Chris Sacca commented, what they have created is a sort of “real-world scripting language.” The possibilities are endless. It can automatically log you into your computer when you get close enough or set your Google Voice account to forward to a different number when you enter a known area of bad signal. The platform is only available on Android phones, but the company says it will be keeping an eye out for when it can make its way onto iOS. With the next version of the Nexus, the Nexus S, coming out with an NFC chip embedded and hopefully the iPhone 5, a platform like NeuAer’s ProxPlatform could be the breeding ground for a lot of new and interesting apps. What it Takes to Build a Highly Secure FinTech … Why IoT Apps are Eating Device Interfaces mike melanson Tags:#mobile#news#web Role of Mobile App Analytics In-App Engagement Related Posts The Rise and Rise of Mobile Payment Technology
Essential Reading! Get my 2nd book: The Lost Art of Closing “In The Lost Art of Closing, Anthony proves that the final commitment can actually be one of the easiest parts of the sales process—if you’ve set it up properly with other commitments that have to happen long before the close. The key is to lead customers through a series of necessary steps designed to prevent a purchase stall.” Buy Now A few weeks ago I received an email from an employee whose Executive Vice President was publishing my work on their company blog under his name. A half a dozen of his inside salespeople subscribed to this blog and brought this to my attention. I had a tough time convincing this gentleman to attribute the posts to me or take them down. He relented when I told him his people were questioning his leadership.Three days ago I received another email outlining exactly the same scenario. Another executive leader was “borrowing” my writing and passing it off as his own. He suggested that a “ghost writer” provides him the material and that he didn’t know where the ghost writer acquired the content. Once again, this gentleman’s people emailed me to question his leadership.Tonight I received a tweet pointing me to an individual on LinkedIn, who has been posting my blog posts every day for months, passing them off as his own. In this case, the person plagiarizing my work added his contact information to the bottom of each post, asking people to contact him for help with their sales results. He was forced to remove the posts when people in the small sales community left a dozen comments under one of his posts.The people who are plagiarizing my work and the work of others who regularly produce content are creating a serious problem for themselves. They are very publicly showing a lack of character. And they are leaving a long trail behind them, one that their employees or customers can easily follow. Anyone could capture screenshots of the plagiarized work and provide evidence to others or publish it themselves.None of this is necessary.There are people who do a very nice job synthesizing content on the web. Many of them don’t write much content. Instead, they curate content for their audiences. Their audiences find that curation is valuable because these curators are doing the work of pulling together content worth reading or viewing. Curation is a good strategy for a lot of folks.There are no shortcuts to building your brand and your reputation. You have to do good work. You have to do that work consistently. You need a unique point of view, and you need your own voice. But none of this matters if you don’t have character.Plagiarism isn’t a content marketing strategy.
June Mar Fajardo with his trophies which includes a fifth PBA MVP award. Photo by Tristan Tamayo/INQUIRER.netThe PBA’s most decorated coach believes there’s too much history that needs to be weighed and eras that need to be broken down before anyone can award GOAT status to San Miguel Beer star and five-time MVP June Mar Fajardo just yet.“I think it’s very difficult to compare eras,” Tim Cone said. “Ramon Fernandez was incredible. I coached Alvin Patrimonio for many years [and] he was incredible.”ADVERTISEMENT SEA Games: Biñan football stadium stands out in preparedness, completion While MVP trophies indeed have never been a measure of greatness, the manner by which Fajardo won them is what opened up GOAT discussions: Fajardo collected MVP awards in consecutive fashion.Since entering the PBA, the 29-year-old Fajardo’s lone non-MVP year was his rookie season. His fourth MVP came in his fifth year in the PBA. Fernandez won his fourth MVP award 13 years after his PBA debut while it took Patrimonio almost a decade to collect his four trophies.“June Mar is the greatest of this era—maybe the best all time, but I’m not gonna say anything definitive who’s the best. I don’t have one. They’re all good,” said Cone, who himself is in the conversation when it comes to debates on the greatest PBA coach of all time—he is the only coach to have assembled two Grand Slam seasons.‘Legends before me’“If I say June Mar [is GOAT], then that’s saying something about Mon, that’s saying about Alvin,” he added.ADVERTISEMENT LATEST STORIES Fajardo won his fifth MVP trophy last Sunday, eclipsing the record shared by former San Miguel Beer star Fernandez and long-time Purefoods franchise player Patrimonio.The 6-foot-10 Cebuano also shrugged off GOAT (Greatest Of All Time) suggestions, saying in Filipino the stars that came before him “accomplished more, especially in terms of championships.”FEATURED STORIESSPORTSPrivate companies step in to help SEA Games hostingSPORTSUrgent reply from Philippine football chiefSPORTSWin or don’t eat: the Philippines’ poverty-driven, world-beating pool starsCone also said the number of MVP awards does not automatically make one the greatest ever, a tag that has fueled a lot of debates in a team sport like basketball.“You know, Kareem Abdul-Jabbar—who is my favorite player—he had six MVPs. But they don’t consider him the best of all time, because [he was] from a different era. Michael Jordan came later, LeBron (James) came later, Bill Russel before all of them. So it’s really difficult [to tell],” he added. Patrombon, Arcilla headline PPS Actifit Open PH underwater hockey team aims to make waves in SEA Games PLAY LIST 02:42PH underwater hockey team aims to make waves in SEA Games01:44Philippines marks anniversary of massacre with calls for justice01:19Fire erupts in Barangay Tatalon in Quezon City01:07Trump talks impeachment while meeting NCAA athletes02:49World-class track facilities installed at NCC for SEA Games02:11Trump awards medals to Jon Voight, Alison Krauss Fajardo has also said he shouldn’t be considered the PBA greatest player.“There are legends who came before me,” he said in Filipino. “I think they should be considered as such (GOAT). They played here in the PBA and they have accomplished more, especially in terms of championships.”Fernandez, for example, has won a league record 19 championships.Cone, though, is willing to stand by the claim that Fajardo is the league’s most dominant player.“There’s no doubt. You don’t win five MVPs for nothing. He has been remarkably healthy for all the pounding that he takes. That itself is just worthy of being MVP. That’s another thing Alvin [also] had.“No doubt, right now, June Mar in the last four, five years, has been the most dominant in our league.”The debate is expected to rage on until Fajardo fills out his potential. With at least three to four peak years still ahead of him, Fajardo, if he stays healthy, has what it takes to end his mark by putting the MVP record beyond reach.By then, the debate may finally end.Or not.Cone reminded everyone how far-reaching the definition of “greatest ever” is, bringing up the legend who has had the most impact on the country’s basketball lore. SEA Games hosting troubles anger Duterte TS Kammuri to enter PAR possibly a day after SEA Games opening “Probably, maybe he may not be the best player, but the biggest personality? The most important player of all time? [Sonny Jaworski] He won an MVP, I believe… in terms of probably the most important person in the history of our league? It was Jaworski,” he said.Sports Related Videospowered by AdSparcRead Next LOOK: Joyce Pring goes public with engagement to Juancho Triviño SEA Games: Biñan football stadium stands out in preparedness, completion Private companies step in to help SEA Games hosting Don’t miss out on the latest news and information. MOST READ LOOK: Joyce Pring goes public with engagement to Juancho Triviño Is Luis Manzano planning to propose to Jessy Mendiola? View comments
Mohali, Jun 10 (PTI) Art of Living founder Sri Sri Ravi Shankar today said the need of the hour was to make Punjab drug free and appealed to people to keep yoga above politics.”It was important to make Punjab drug free. In the present situation in Punjab, everybody should come forward to make the state drug free and save the youths of Punjab,” he said during a meditation session at the Paraplegic Rehabilitation Centre (PRC) here.He also appealed to everyone to keep yoga above politics and participate in the event on International Yoga Day in Chandigarh in which Prime Minister Narendra Modi will also participate.Ravi Shankar emphasized the importance of Yoga for every individual irrespective of cast, creed or social status and said people should not drag religion into yoga.He said that yoga is not just asanas or physical exercise rather its a complete science which provides us techniques to lead a stress-free life.During his brief stay at the centre, Ravi Shankar interacted with the inmates and gave them some tips to remain happy.On the occasion of International Yoga Day, Lt Gen K J Singh, GoC-in-C of Western Command said an effort will be made to bring Prime Minister Narendra Modi to the PRC and interact with the bravehearts.He said that a sports complex is going to be inaugurated shortly at the PRC complex for the fitness of its inmates. PTI VJ MNG RG MNG
England opener Mark Stoneman is looking forward to a verbal barrage from Australia during the Ashes series in which he hopes to nail down his spot in the Test side, the batsman has said.England have struggled to find a regular opening partner for Alastair Cook in recent years but Stoneman — the 12th batsman to be given the role since Andrew Strauss’ retirement in 2012 — has impressed selectors after his debut in August.The 30-year-old, who has scored 120 runs from five Test innings, has plenty of experience in first-class cricket with Durham and Surrey and is no stranger to Australian conditions having played grade cricket in Sydney for seven seasons.”I’m quite looking forward to it, see what the sledgers have got for us,” Stoneman told reporters as England prepare to face a Western Australia XI in a two-day game in Perth this weekend.Stoneman believes that he has begun to develop a strong partnership with fellow left-hander Cook and said the banter between the two players has helped him ease into his role.”It has only been a short while but I think he reads me quite well, too, from the other end as to whether he needs to give me a gee up or make me crack a smile.”He’s quite funny actually. All the time that I only ever saw him on the telly he just looked like a guy who was very calm, but you can have a bit of banter with him and he judges the mood quite well.”advertisementEngland captain Joe Root was keen to stress the importance of winning tour games as the visitors look to build momentum for the first Test that starts on Nov. 23 in Brisbane.”When we turn up to those games, it is about making sure we apply ourselves and get what we want out of them by trying to win and getting into the habit of winning early in the tour,” Root said.”So when the Tests come round we have belief from what we have done in the warm-up games.”After the weekend’s game at the WACA Ground, England take on a Cricket Australia XI in Adelaide and Townsville.
JUNEAU, Alaska — The Juneau Arts and Humanities Council has changed the theme of its annual fashion show following a complaint by Alaska Airlines.The Juneau Empire reports the Wearable Art show scheduled for mid-February in Alaska’s capital changed its theme of turbulence to tailwind.The Seattle-based airline, a sponsor of the event, suggested the change, citing the word’s negative connection to air travel.Council executive director Nancy DeCherney says board members and the airline felt the theme change was a positive decision.DeCherney says the art pieces for the show are not required to match the theme, noting there will probably be items still referencing turbulence.___Information from: Juneau (Alaska) Empire, http://www.juneauempire.comThe Associated Press
The Croatian player believes the English media underestimated his country before the 2018 FIFA World Cup Semi-Final in RussiaCroatia and England met in the 2018 FIFA World Cup in Russia in the Semi-Final round.There, Kieran Trippier opened up the scoreboard in favor of the Three Lions, but then Ivan Perisic and Mario Mandzukic gave the Croatians a ticket to the final.“When I said that after the game it was not meant to be about the players or the head coach but more in regards to some media and commentary that we read and watched,” the Real Madrid midfielder told Sky Sports.Mourinho: “Lionel Messi made me a better coach” Andrew Smyth – September 14, 2019 Jose Mourinho believes the experience of going up against Barcelona superstar Lionel Messi at Real Madrid made him a greater coach.“We felt a little bit disrespected and not enough recognition we thought we deserved.”“It was a little bit of extra motivation for the team, not that we needed any for a World Cup semi-final. That’s how I felt,” he added.“Is it a problem for England? That’s something you need to answer for yourself and analyze.”
Tottenham have confirmed that they’ve agreed to sell Mousa Dembele to Chinese club Guangzhou R&FThe Belgium international has only made seven starts in 10 Premier League appearances this season for Spurs due to the strong competition and his own fitness problems.Dembele has been sidelined since injuring his ankle against Wolves at the beginning of November and was expected to leave Spurs this month due to being out contract this summer.Now London-based club have decided to cash in on Dembele before it’s too late with Chinese Super League side Guangzhou being his preferred destination, despite interest from Beijing Sinobo.“I’ve always had a good experience here,” Dembele told SpursTV.“I go away with an unbelievable feeling and with a certain love for the club. The club is part of my family now.”Pochettino: ‘Happy’ Christian Eriksen ready for Spurs action Andrew Smyth – September 12, 2019 Mauricio Pochettino insists Christian Eriksen is “happy” and in the right frame of mind for Tottenham despite his failed summer exit.Dembele managed 10 goals and 12 assists in 249 appearances for Spurs in all competitions after joining from Fulham in 2012.”The Club is part of my family now.”🗣️ We caught up with @mousadembele for a nostalgic look back at his six-and-a-half year career at Spurs. 💙 pic.twitter.com/uCt7VIXE8V— Tottenham Hotspur (@SpursOfficial) January 17, 2019